The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the summits of a submarine mountain vary mendacity on the nice tectonic suture zone that extends from the jap Himalayas to the Arakan alongside the Myanmar border and eventually to Sumatra and lesser Sundaes. This archipelago consists of a bunch of 572 islands, islets and rock outcrops, however there are a complete of 352 necessary islands comprising the primary chain of Andaman and Nicobar, Ritches Archipelago and the out laying volcanic islands of Narcondam and Barren. The islands are unfold over an space of 8,249 sq.km, of which 6,408 sq. km of space is occupied by the Andaman group and 1,841 sq.km by the Nicobar teams of Islands. The Andaman group consists of 324 islands of which 24 are inhabited whereas the Nicobar group contains 28 islands of which 12 are inhabited. Undulating topography and intervening valleys characterize the physiography of this Archiepelago. There are a number of rain-fed streams, which dry up throughout summer season. All the key islands assist a luxuriant progress of evergreen, semi evergreen, moist deciduous and littoral forests from the water edge to the mountain high relying on the topography and nature of the soil. For administrative functions, the Islands are divided into two districts, specifically Andaman and Nicobar. There are a complete of 204 income villages of which 197 are within the Andaman District. The Andaman and Nicobar is having a superb financial turnover by Tourism Trade due to its wealthy pure scenic magnificence and pure assets. On the identical time these islands are dealing with issues corresponding to inhabitants progress, industrial improvement and so forth and in flip dealing with acute energy scarcity.
The ever rising power wants of the islands should be taken into consideration in the long run Grasp Plan even at this state. Dependence must be completely on the native assets – biomass and different assets of the islands in addition to the huge renewable assets of the ocean and ambiance. On this respect, it’s potential that the expertise that might be developed and perfected for the islands might be a path-breaker for the nationwide program additionally. Bio-mass manufacturing might be undertaken on an accelerated scale below extremely favorable circumstances. Photo voltaic, tidal and wind assets might be of nice significance. Sources from the ocean pose new challenges to our scientist and technologists. When agricultural manufacturing, industrial improvement and financial exploitation of oceanic assets go hand in hand, the power drawback is prone to be a constraint if well timed steps usually are not taken in that path (Qasim 1998).
Energy is prone to turn out to be a critical constraint. Except assets are found on the island, thermal energy stations utilizing coal or diesel oil are prone to be extraordinarily costly. Additionally the air pollution arising out of the gasoline might spoil the pure assets of the island. Potentialities for hydropower are restricted as a result of non-perennial nature of rivers. On this context, it could be essential to vigorously discover various sources of power. Three approaches that are prone to show fruitful are geothermal power, wind power and ocean thermal power conversion (OTEC). As a result of volcanic origin of the primary islands it’s potential that appropriate geothermal websites for pretty giant scale energy technology could be out there. OTEC is already deliberate for Lakshadweep Islands. Doable OTEC websites must be explored for the Andamans additionally. Furthermore, little or no try has been made to discover the utilization of wind power. Acceptable websites of excellent wind power might be focused utilizing satellite tv for pc expertise to advertise wind mills (Qasim 1998).
With a purpose to relieve the strain on out there land and water assets as a result of improve in inhabitants on presently inhabited islands chance of shifting part of this inhabitants to uninhabited islands after creation of obligatory services must be examined. On a few of these islands each photo voltaic and wind power is offered at exploitable ranges. Use of Photovoltaic photo voltaic cells and wind mills for technology of energy will go a great distance of their improvement. The producing capability of wind energy methods ranges from 100 watts to Four megawatt. The methods require the set up of a generator with rotor, tower, battery financial institution and management unit. A generator with a mean capability of 500 W with a 5-m diameter rotor and a life span of 10 years can price Rs. 10,00,000 (TEDA 1999). These methods could profit coastal resorts as these areas are typically uncovered to wind. A median wind velocity of higher than 4m per second is critical if wind power is to be economically possible. On this case, wind mills are sometimes cheaper than photo voltaic PV and diesel mills. Expert technicians are required to put in and keep the system. Upkeep requires common checking and entry to new elements (Huttche et.al. 2002).
Due to the necessary relationship between the out there energy and the wind velocity, turbine must be suitably positioned as to permit free motion of the wind. Wind power is especially interesting technique to generate electrical energy as a result of it’s primarily pollution-free. Greater than half of all of the electrical energy that’s utilized in India is generated from burning coal, and within the course of, giant quantities of poisonous metals, air pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted into the ambiance. Improvement of 10% of the wind potential within the 10 windiest Indian states would offer greater than sufficient power to displace emissions from the nation’s coal-fired energy crops and eradicate the nation’s main supply of acid rain; cut back emissions of carbon dioxide (an important greenhouse fuel); and assist to include the unfold of bronchial asthma and different respiratory illnesses aggravated or attributable to air air pollution on this nation. If wind power had been to offer 20% of the nation’s electrical energy, a really lifelike and achievable aim with the present expertise, it might displace greater than a 3rd of the emissions from coal-fired energy crops, or the entire radioactive waste and water air pollution from nuclear energy crops. Desk 1 reveals the state smart put in wind energy in India.
Any improvement plan of islands must be primarily based on long run want, being attentive to pure assets each residing and non residing, ecological standing, pure magnificence and the current state of improvement of the area. This requires dependable and upto date database in regards to the pure assets and their distribution over house. With the standard strategies the information obtained are sometimes time consuming and fewer accessible. The distant sensing expertise with its uniform and unbiased knowledge assortment system has the aptitude of offering the a lot wanted data on giant areas in single synoptic view, in brief time, and at periodic intervals. For inaccessible areas that is the one supply of knowledge assortment. Therefore to be able to establish websites for wind mills as a pilot mission for North Passage Island, Distant Sensing and GIS methods had been used.
For proposing appropriate websites for windmills utilizing Distant Sensing and GIS the next standards had been adopted:
1. Flat plain area and the slope lower than 5°
2. Minimal cover cowl with the timber peak must be lower than 40m
3. Surrounding areas ought to have lower than 60m elevation
4. Windward facet is best suited than leaward facet
5. Open shoreline as a mountain hole which produces wind funneling impact
6. ‘U’ formed valley areas with good wind velocity
State As on 31.03.2002 As on 31.03.2003 As on 31.01.2004
Demons-tration Tasks (MW) Personal Sector Tasks (MW) Whole Capability (MW)
Demons-tration Tasks (MW) Personal Sector Tasks (MW) Whole Capability (MW) (MW)
Andhra Pradesh 5.4 87.2 92.6 5.4 87.2 92.6 92.8
Gujarat 17.3 149.6 166.9 17.3 155.8 173.1 201.2
Karnataka 2.6 66 68.6 2.6 121.7 124.3 177.5
Kerala 2 – 2 2 0 2 2
Madhya Pradesh 0.6 22 22.6 0.6 22 22.6 22.6
Maharashtra 6.4 392.8 399.2 8.4 392.8 401.2 401.3
Rajasthan 6.4 9.7 16.1 6.4 54.3 60.7 109
Tamil Nadu 19.4 838.1 857.5 19.4 970.9 990.3 1119.7
West Bengal 1.1 – 1.1 1.1 0 1.1 1.1
Others 1.6 – 1.6 1.6 0 1.6 –
Whole (All India) 62.8 1565.4 1628.2 64.8 1804.7 1869.5 2117.2
Supply: TADA (1999)
Desk 1: State-wise wind energy put in capability in India
2. STUDY AREA
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located within the Bay of Bengal inside 6° and 14° N latitude, 92° and 94° E longitude. For administrative functions, the Islands are divided into two districts, specifically Andaman and Nicobar. The previous consists of two sub divisions, specifically South Andaman and Mayabunder consisting of 4 tahsils. The Nicobar district is split into Automotive Nicobar and Nancowry tahsil. The 4 tahsils of Andaman district are Diglipur, Mayabunder, Rangat and South Andaman. The South Andaman tahsil is additional bifurcated into two tahsils specifically, Port Blair and Ferrargunj. At current 36 islands in Andaman and Nicobar Islands are inhabited. The inhabitants as per 1991 census is 2,80,661 and as per 2001 census it’s over 3,50,000 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Of the whole inhabitants, the bulk (90%) is settlers from outdoors the islands.
GIS mapping methodology was used to establish and map the websites with potential wind energy in North Passage Island. Utilizing Arc View GIS software program, thematic maps corresponding to landuse, 3-D elevation mannequin, and slope had been digitized, rectified, analysed and built-in for figuring out appropriate websites for erecting windmills.
4. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
The fluid (air) that drives the rotor is far much less dense than water, and so the diameter of the rotor have to be a lot bigger than the rotor of a hydro turbine. A hydro turbine able to producing one megawatt (MW) of energy can be a number of meters in diameter–a 1-MW wind turbine’s rotor can be roughly 54 meters throughout. Second, wind power is offered over a a lot bigger geographical vary than hydropower in line with AWEA 2003.
Good wind speeds are necessary. The power that the wind comprises is a operate of the dice of its velocity (Jeyakumar et.al., 2002). Because of this a website with 12-mph common winds has greater than 70% extra power than a website with 10 – mph common winds.
The wind energy produced varies with the dice of wind velocity. The mass of air (m) with velocity (v) and density (d) flowing per unit time by space (A) swept by the blades of a standard horizontal axis wind turbine is dAV. Thus the kinetic power of this mass of air is given by 1/2mV2 = 1/2dAV3. So it is vitally necessary to find windfarms in areas with excessive common wind speeds. Wind velocity will increase with peak above the bottom; it additionally will increase over open areas (sea, giant lake, and so forth). It has been seen that for wind energy improvement, websites with common wind speeds of 6.5 to eight m/sec are the best websites (Suneel 1995). The wind energy density noticed at Andaman group of islands are throughout the vary from 55.30 to 106.60 W/M2.
Utilizing distant sensing and GIS for choice of website for windmills have many benefits such because it reduces time, price and manpower for finding wind monitoring stations, it gives predefined information to find wind monitoring stations, inaccessible areas might be recognized, built-in and a perspective research might additional improve the scientific analysis potential for windmill website location. Desk 2 reveals the island-wise knowledge of wind monitoring stations for potential websites in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Top-of-the-line potential websites for finding wind machines is the highest of a easy, effectively rounded hill with light slope mendacity on a flat plain. A website positioned on an island in a lake or a sea is often a wonderful website; open plain, an open shoreline as a mountain hole which produces wind funneling is sweet. The proposed website of windmills falls within the latitude and longitude extension of 12° 17′ 00.50″ N – 12° 17′ 54.94″ N and 92° 55′ 53.74″ E – 92° 56′ 06.62″ E (Determine 1). The realm of the proposed website is 50 hectares. About 5-MW of electrical energy might be generated on this space.
S.No Latitude Longitude Station Wind energy density (W/M2) at 20m Altitude
1 10° 34″ 92° 26″ South Bay 106.60
2 08° 15″ 93° 08″ Minyuk 62.60
3 08° 13″ 93° 10″ Chukmachi 66.20
4 13° 14″ 92° 57″ Ramkrishnagram 55.30
5 12° 53″ 92° 54″ Pokkadero 63.10
6 11° 39″ 92° 45″ Barkath line 63.00
7 11° 40″ 92° 44″ Phoenix bay 68.50
Supply: CWET 2000
Desk 2. Island smart wind monitoring station in Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Wind monitoring stations report on locations corresponding to Ramakrishnagram, Pokkadero, Phoenix bay, Barkath line, South Bay, Minyuk and Chukmachi reveals that the final wind path is in direction of South – SW and its power varies from 55.30 W/M2 to 106.20
W/m2 (Determine 2). Low wind power is noticed on the mainland whereas on the shore the wind power is excessive. Furthermore the windward facet of the elevation has most wind power whereas at its leaward facet wind power is lowered due to its thick cover cowl and scattering of the winds as a result of elevated areas.
Typically the small islands located on the leeward facet of the bigger islands which has an elevation higher than 60m couldn’t be proposed for windmills due to its elevation and cover results. Whereas within the case of North Passage Island it’s surrounded by islands corresponding to Baratang in East, Center Andaman in North and Strait in South. Although it’s surrounded by largest elevated islands the geographical location is effectively suited to windmills . Japanese facet of the north passage has acquired a passage, Homfrey’s strait. It acts as a funnel for wind circulate. The encircling elevation of this island is lower than 60m and it’s about 7 km away from the shore of Baratang island. Therefore, this island has acquired a wonderful geographical location for using it for windmill erection.
For North Passage Island the slope evaluation is carried out utilizing Arc View GIS software program reveals that almost all of the island falls throughout the slope of 10°. The realm proposed for windmill erection is inside a 5° slope. This slope is best suited for erecting wind mills constantly within the terrain. Topography of the research space reveals that there’s a U formed valley discovered between northern and jap portion of the island. The height peak of the northern a part of the island is 64 meters and the jap a part of the island is 84 meters. This valley area is surrounded by sea and favorable quantity of air circulate is noticed as a result of this U formed topography. The continual wind motion makes this a wonderful locality for erecting wind mill. Due to the U formed valley and proximity to the ocean the wind motion had been discovered to have good velocity.
The electrical energy generated by this wind mill might be transferred to the closest inhabited islands additionally. The next islands had been the closest inhabited islands from North Passage Island (Determine 3). The space from North Passage to Lengthy Island is 7.Eight km, Strait is 8.Three km, Baratang is 15.11 km and North Andaman is 11.9 km. Implementation of this research can be extraordinarily helpful to the inhabitants of this island in addition to to the close by neighboring islands.
This research investigates the potential of satellite tv for pc expertise to establish the positioning for erecting windmills. The utilization of ArcGIS software program for the combination of thematic data corresponding to geomorphology, wind, landuse and so forth by satellite tv for pc imagery, subject survey knowledge and different attribute data enhances the research in addition to will increase its accuracy. Comparable research might be tried in different elements of the Andaman islands the place the air circulate is free and possibly on the windward facet of the island i.e. the western portion of Andaman.
The writer is grateful to Ministry of Surroundings and Forest for offering funding assist and to the Director, CWET, Chennai for offering related data to validate this research.